A Twitter oAuth Example in C#

I have a number of scripts that I run against my Twitter feed, stuff like bulk deleting my DMs, that sort of thing. Well of course they all stopped working last year when Twitter moved from a basic authentication model to an oAuth one. I thought it was about time I got them up and running again. Now I know there are libraries out there that will handle the Twitter oAuth stuff for me, but I wanted to get a handle on how it worked, for my own information – besides, how hard could it be, right?

Well the answer is… not that hard, but it’s tricky to get working and a total PITA to debug. So, having gotten it working I thought I’d write this blog post, mainly for my own information, so I know where to look when I forget how to do it the next time, but if it helps you guys out too then that’s cool. On the plus side, at least you don’t have to go around the loop of getting the token in the first place. If you are using code against your own account – as I’m doing here – then all the information you need is there on your app page after you register

I’ll walk you through the process, via the code, then I’ll post the full code listing below that way you can cut and paste it into your own solution if you want to use it.

Okay, so what’s first? Well, first off, we have to collect the parameters that oAuth is going to need…

//GS - Get the oAuth params
string status = "Your status goes here";
string postBody = "status=" + 
    Uri.EscapeDataString(status); 
            
string oauth_consumer_key = "YourConsumerKey";
string oauth_nonce = Convert.ToBase64String(
    new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(
        DateTime.Now.Ticks.ToString()));
            
string oauth_signature_method = "HMAC-SHA1";
string oauth_token = 
    "YourToken";
            
TimeSpan ts = DateTime.UtcNow - 
    new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0,DateTimeKind.Utc
);
            
string oauth_timestamp = 
    Convert.ToInt64(ts.TotalSeconds).ToString();
            
string oauth_version = "1.0";

Couple of tricky things here. Firstly notice two string variables, status and postBody. The latter is what we’ll use when we POST the request later, but the first is just the status part, it’s separated like this because it has to be double encoded in the signature (more on that later) but single encoded everywhere else! Yeah, I know! And that’s not really documented anywhere. I only noticed on close examination of the example text on this page.

On the subject on encoding, the .Net Framework has 4 methods of url encoding, two on the Uri class and two on the HttpUtility class. Guess what? They all do it slightly differently. The one that I’ve found that works best is Url.EscapeDataString, however, even that’s not fully RFC3986 compliant, so if you are using my code and still having problems that might be a place to look.

Moving on, the oauth_nonce param is a string that has to be unique on every call, this is to stop play back attacks on your account. Here I’ve used the ticks on the current date and time. I think this should be okay, but if not I’m sure Barry Dorrans will have a better suggestion for you. Smile

Next is the oauth_timestamp which is the number of seconds after the Unix epoch. Not surprisingly, there’s not a method in the .Net framework for that so you have to write your own. Remember to use the DateTime.UtcNow property to ensure it doesn’t use the local time on your machine, but uses GMT instead, regardless of where you are. This is important because, although the oAuth spec says the time has to be >= previous requests, some people are saying that, for Twitter, it has to be within 5 minutes, though I’ve not seen that in my limited use.

//GS - When building the signature string the params
//must be in alphabetical order. I can't be bothered
//with that, get SortedDictionary to do it's thing
SortedDictionary<string, string> sd = 
    new SortedDictionary<string, string>();
            
sd.Add("status", status);
sd.Add("oauth_version", oauth_version);
sd.Add("oauth_consumer_key", oauth_consumer_key);
sd.Add("oauth_nonce", oauth_nonce);
sd.Add("oauth_signature_method", oauth_signature_method);
sd.Add("oauth_timestamp", oauth_timestamp);
sd.Add("oauth_token", oauth_token);
                        
//GS - Build the signature string
string baseString = String.Empty;
baseString += "POST" + "&";
baseString += Uri.EscapeDataString(
    "http://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/update.json") 
    + "&";
            
foreach (KeyValuePair<string,string> entry in sd)
{
    baseString += Uri.EscapeDataString(entry.Key + 
        "=" + entry.Value + "&");
}
            
//GS - Remove the trailing ambersand char, remember 
//it's been urlEncoded so you have to remove the 
//last 3 chars - %26
baseString = 
    baseString.Substring(0, baseString.Length - 3);

Having gathered our parameters together, we need to form them into a string in order to sign them. Of course this isn’t straight forward either. The string has to be formed in the following pattern:

method&URL&ParamKeyValuePairs

Which looks simple enough, but it’s a little tricky. Firstly, the ampersands that split the three parts must *not* be url encoded, but the ampersands that split the parameter key value pairs *must* be url encoded. As if that wasn’t enough of a pain, the key value pairs themselves must be in alphabetical order by key, and then by value, if the key is repeated, this is because Twitter are going to replicate your signing to ensure your precious tweet hasn’t been tampered with, and so there has to be a scheme to follow for them to replicate what you did. Of course, we can use a sorted dictionary to handle that part for us. Also remember to pass status here here and not postBody as status must be double url encoded at this point, but not in the actual POST.

//GS - Build the signing key
string consumerSecret = 
    "yourSecret";
            
string oauth_token_secret = 
    "YourToken";
            
string signingKey = 
    Uri.EscapeDataString(consumerSecret) + "&" + 
    Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_token_secret);

Next we have to create the key that we are going to instantiate the hash with. To do this you use the url encoded consumer secret, followed by a non url encoded ampersand, followed by the url encoded token. If you don’t need the token for the request you are making then leave it off, but you still need the trailing ampersand.

//GS - Sign the request
HMACSHA1 hasher = new HMACSHA1(
    new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(signingKey));
            
string signatureString = Convert.ToBase64String(
    hasher.ComputeHash(
    new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(baseString)));

Next we are going to sign the request, nothing complicated here, as you see, just remember to take a base64 string of it.

//GS - Tell Twitter we don't do the 100 continue thing
ServicePointManager.Expect100Continue = false;

Then we have this line. This needs to be included to stop Twitter throwing 417 Expectation failed errors.

Well that’s about it. There’s not much to say about the rest of it. It’s just a standard POST request from here. Twitter do recommend that you send the oauth params (remember they have to reproduce what you did to verify your request) via the Authorization header, so of course, you have to url encode it all up again, and wrap it in double quotes too.

Right, that’s all I’ve got to say. I’ve posted the full code below, feel free to use it if it’s any use to you, of course it comes with no warranty whatsoever, other than to say, it works on my machine for what I use it for, YMMV. Smile

class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        //GS - Get the oAuth params
        string status = "your status";
        string postBody = "status=" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(status); 
            
        string oauth_consumer_key = "YourKey";
        string oauth_nonce = Convert.ToBase64String(
            new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(
                DateTime.Now.Ticks.ToString()));
            
        string oauth_signature_method = "HMAC-SHA1";
        string oauth_token = 
            "YourToken";
            
        TimeSpan ts = DateTime.UtcNow - 
            new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0);
            
        string oauth_timestamp = 
            Convert.ToInt64(ts.TotalSeconds).ToString();
            
        string oauth_version = "1.0";

        //GS - When building the signature string the params
        //must be in alphabetical order. I can't be bothered
        //with that, get SortedDictionary to do it's thing
        SortedDictionary<string, string> sd = 
            new SortedDictionary<string, string>();
            
        sd.Add("status", status);
        sd.Add("oauth_version", oauth_version);
        sd.Add("oauth_consumer_key", oauth_consumer_key);
        sd.Add("oauth_nonce", oauth_nonce);
        sd.Add("oauth_signature_method", oauth_signature_method);
        sd.Add("oauth_timestamp", oauth_timestamp);
        sd.Add("oauth_token", oauth_token);
                        
        //GS - Build the signature string
        string baseString = String.Empty;
        baseString += "POST" + "&";
        baseString += Uri.EscapeDataString(
            "http://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/update.json") 
            + "&";
            
        foreach (KeyValuePair<string,string> entry in sd)
        {
            baseString += Uri.EscapeDataString(entry.Key + 
                "=" + entry.Value + "&");
        }
            
        //GS - Remove the trailing ambersand char, remember 
        //it's been urlEncoded so you have to remove the 
        //last 3 chars - %26
        baseString = 
            baseString.Substring(0, baseString.Length - 3);
                       
        //GS - Build the signing key
        string consumerSecret = 
            "YourSecret";
            
        string oauth_token_secret = 
            "YOurToken";
            
        string signingKey = 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(consumerSecret) + "&" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_token_secret);

        //GS - Sign the request
        HMACSHA1 hasher = new HMACSHA1(
            new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(signingKey));
            
        string signatureString = Convert.ToBase64String(
            hasher.ComputeHash(
            new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(baseString)));

        //GS - Tell Twitter we don't do the 100 continue thing
        ServicePointManager.Expect100Continue = false;

        //GS - Instantiate a web request and populate the 
        //authorization header
        HttpWebRequest hwr = 
            (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(
            @"http://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/update.json");
            
        string authorizationHeaderParams = String.Empty;
        authorizationHeaderParams += "OAuth ";
        authorizationHeaderParams += "oauth_nonce=" + "\"" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_nonce) + "\",";
            
        authorizationHeaderParams += 
            "oauth_signature_method=" + "\"" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_signature_method) + 
            "\",";
            
        authorizationHeaderParams += "oauth_timestamp=" + "\"" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_timestamp) + "\",";
            
        authorizationHeaderParams += "oauth_consumer_key=" 
            + "\"" + Uri.EscapeDataString(
            oauth_consumer_key) + "\",";
            
        authorizationHeaderParams += "oauth_token=" + "\"" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_token) + "\",";
            
        authorizationHeaderParams += "oauth_signature=" + "\"" 
            + Uri.EscapeDataString(signatureString) + "\",";
            
        authorizationHeaderParams += "oauth_version=" + "\"" + 
            Uri.EscapeDataString(oauth_version) + "\"";
            
        hwr.Headers.Add(
            "Authorization", authorizationHeaderParams);

        //GS - POST off the request
        hwr.Method = "POST";
        hwr.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
        Stream stream = hwr.GetRequestStream();
        byte[] bodyBytes = 
            new ASCIIEncoding().GetBytes(postBody);
            
        stream.Write(bodyBytes, 0, bodyBytes.Length);
        stream.Flush();
        stream.Close();

        //GS - Allow us a reasonable timeout in case
        //Twitter's busy
        hwr.Timeout = 3 * 60 * 1000;

        try 
        { 
            HttpWebResponse rsp = hwr.GetResponse() 
                as HttpWebResponse;
            //GS - Do something with the return here...
        }
        catch (WebException e)
        {
            //GS - Do some clever error handling here...
        }
    }        
}
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97 Responses to A Twitter oAuth Example in C#

  1. Duncan Smart says:

    “Remember to use the DateTime.UtcNow property to ensure it uses the local time on your machine.”

    Or rather: so that it doesn’t use the local time on your machine and uses GMT/UTC wherever you are in the world? :-)

  2. Duncan Smart says:

    ..oh and on that subject – the line:

    TimeSpan ts = DateTime.UtcNow -
        new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0);
    

    Should be:

    TimeSpan ts = DateTime.UtcNow -
        new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, DateTimeKind.Utc);
    

    Otherwise this code will break when we go into summer time.

    This is one of the problems coding in the UK in winter: date-related stuff has a tendency to break when it gets to summer!

  3. Gary Short says:

    Nice catch Duncan, I’ll update the code.

  4. Michael says:

    Just so you know, if you use a space in your status your current implementation will fail. status has to be double encoded so change your sd.Add(“status”,status) to sd.Add(“status”, Uri.EscapeDataString(status));

    • garyshort says:

      Thanks, that’ll teach me to be a lazy tester. :-) I’ll make that edit.

    • wensveen says:

      Indeed, this implementation will fail for any value containing escapable characters (not just status). This is because every key and value has to be escaped and then joined by ‘=’, and every key=value entry joined by ‘&’. Then, when you create the baseString, the whole parameterString has to be escaped again.
      This causes key and value to be doubly escaped, with single-escaped ‘=’ and ‘&’ characters.

  5. Michael says:

    (EDIT for post Above) Well it was for me anyway as i notice your status is 2 words.

  6. KKing says:

    This works beautifully, except when I have a single quote in my tweet, i.e. “OU beat Texas in ESPN’s #NCAAFootballTraditions bracket. Been trying to figure out how to get that single quote through to no avail. Any ideas?

  7. Prakash says:

    try
    {
    HttpWebResponse rsp = hwr.GetResponse()
    as HttpWebResponse;

    using (MemoryStream ms = new MemoryStream())
    {
    System.IO.Stream stream = (Stream)res.GetResponseStream();
    byte[] buffer = new byte[32768];

    int read;

    while ((read = stream.Read(buffer, 0, buffer.Length)) > 0)
    {
    ms.Write(buffer, 0, read);
    }

    Encoding bodyEncoding = Encoding.ASCII;
    if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(res.ContentEncoding))
    bodyEncoding = Encoding.GetEncoding(res.ContentEncoding);

    // ResponseBody will have response.
    string responseBody = bodyEncoding.GetString(ms.ToArray());

    }

    • Prakash says:

      HttpWebResponse rsp = hwr.GetResponse()
      as HttpWebResponse;

      to change this to

      HttpWebResponse res = hwr.GetResponse()
      as HttpWebResponse;

  8. I am continually getting a ’401 Unauthorized’ error and I’m relatively sure it’s because I’m confused about which key/token/secret value goes where.

    On my Twitter application page I have 4 values I can use:
    In the OAuth Settings section:
    1. Consumer Key
    2. Consumer Secret
    In the Your Access Token section:
    3. Access Token
    4. Access Token Secret

    In your code in is very confusion given the variable names and the comments you use which of these values should go where. As I see it you have 4 variables that need to be filled:
    1. oauth_consumer_key
    2. oauth_token
    3. consumerSecret
    4. oauth_token_secret

    Can you match these two lists for me please?

  9. Stathread says:

    Drew,
    You probably have it right, but this does not look like the full process. I am getting a 401 as well using only the code above. Read the following page for more info as it seems there is a few steps prior to this point. “So now we’re going to make a tweet. We’re going to use the oauth_token and oauth_token_secret from the last step…” https://dev.twitter.com/docs/auth/oauth#Making_a_resource_request_on_a_user-s_behalf

  10. Did anyone ever work out why they were getting 401′s from this?

    I’m at the same point now where using the exact code above, with tokens obtained using another oauth library (which works fine) just giving me continual 401 errors whenever i try and use them

  11. Guess what – this was causing the 401′s for a simple, single reason.

    Right after you create the httpwebrequest object, add this :

    hwr.KeepAlive = false;

    The ‘connection = close’ header will now be added to the request, and it will work :)

  12. Stathread says:

    Mark,
    What’s the other library your using? Can you post a link for others? Personally, I already started my own and got to the request_token part. I am able to get the tokens, but didn’t have time to finish. I was done I was going to post the code here after.

  13. It’s an oauth for twitter class, which extends the regular oauth.net stuff on the web. I remember it was 6 odd months ago when i got the code originally, so your best bet is maybe looking around for the classes yourself since ive pulled mine apart somewhat.

    oAuthTwitter : OAuthBase <—- that's the top of my class which might be worth googling for.

    I use these classes to get tokens back for a user request, which are then stuck in a database. The code snippet above just uses those values plugged into them.

    Alot of the things on the web seem to do everything in one class, which confused me somewhat initially.

  14. The only thing remaining to be fixed with this code above, is some encoding issues that is stopping some tweets being posted. I’ve tested the code with something like “test…..” and it works perfectly, but something more complex doesnt go through.

    It WILL work however if i go to the twitter homepage and cut and paste the exact none working string into the ‘tweet this’ box. So it must be something to do with our encoding of the string on the way into the request.

  15. Update : Apologies for the spam, but thought it would help.

    Turns out if i try and use the word ‘tonne(s)’ it will fall over, but putting ‘tonnes’ works. So it looks like its the encoding of the brackets (and i’m assuming other similar chars) causing the issue.

  16. Gary Short says:

    Yeah I think the input needs to be double encoded, I’m looking into it

    • Sunny Kumar says:

      Hi, this post really helped me a lot & I’m really thankful to you all guys who made it possible for me to start with Twitter API. Still I’m unable to send messages with blank space. Can you please specify how to “double encode” the messages?

      Thanks a lot in Advance,
      Sunny.

  17. Cameron says:

    Gary, thanks for sample. It works for me though initially I was getting the 401 exception until I read Michael’s comment regarding the double encoding. Just having a blank space in the status caused the 401 error. So yes it must be double encoded.

    Twitter has added statuses/update_with_media which is multipart. Because the method uses multipart POST, OAuth is handled a little differently, etc. Do you have an example code for attaching media?

    Thx

  18. Cameron says:

    Using Hammock to upload pics to Twitter (web):
    OAuthCredentials credentials = new Hammock.Authentication.OAuth.OAuthCredentials
    {
    Type = OAuthType.ProtectedResource,
    SignatureMethod = OAuthSignatureMethod.HmacSha1,
    ParameterHandling = OAuthParameterHandling.HttpAuthorizationHeader,
    ConsumerKey = consumerKey,
    ConsumerSecret = consumerSecret,
    Token = accessToken.Token,
    TokenSecret = accessToken.TokenSecret,
    Version = “1.0″,
    };

    var restClient = new RestClient
    {
    Authority = “https://upload.twitter.com”,
    };

    System.Net.ServicePointManager.Expect100Continue = false;

    var restRequest = new RestRequest
    {
    Credentials = credentials,
    Path = “/1/statuses/update_with_media.xml”,
    Method = Hammock.Web.WebMethod.Post
    };

    FileStream stream = new FileStream(@”\images\SmallScreenShot.png”, FileMode.Open);

    restRequest.AddField(“status”, “Small Screen Shot”);
    restRequest.AddFile(“media[]“, “SmallScreenShot.png”, stream, “image/png”);

    var asyncResult = restClient.BeginRequest(restRequest, new RestCallback(Callback));

    var response = restClient.EndRequest(asyncResult);

  19. Emil says:

    If you just want to post a tweet to your account do you use your account twitterAccount/twitterPassword as the consumer key & secret? that is not clear in your example.

    I simply want to post tweets to my account without having to register a Twitter application.

    • carats5 says:

      Same here, I only want to you my twitter user/password to post the tweet. If anyone has the answer to it please post it. Much appreciated!

  20. Kam says:

    Add this to your method:
    string statusraw = “your status including those naughty chars”;
    string status = EncodeUrl(statusraw);
    string postBody = “status=” +

    instead of
    string status = “your status”;
    Add this to your class:

    private static string[,] _chars = new string[,]

    {

    { “%”, “%25″ }, // this is the first one

    { “$” , “%24″ },

    { “&”, “%26″ },

    { “+”, “%2B” },

    { “,”, “%2C” },

    { “/”, “%2F” },

    { “:”, “%3A” },

    { “;”, “%3B” },

    { “=”, “%3D” },

    { “?”, “%3F” },

    { “@”, “%40″ },

    { ” “, “%20″ },

    { “\”” , “%22″ },

    { “”, “%3E” },

    { “#”, “%23″ },

    { “{“, “%7B” },

    { “}”, “%7D” },

    { “|”, “%7C” },

    { “\\”, “%5C” },

    { “^”, “%5E” },

    { “~”, “%7E” },

    { “[", "%5B" },

    { "]“, “%5D” },

    { “`”, “%60″ } };

    public static string EncodeUrl(string url)
    {

    for (int i = 0; i < _chars.GetUpperBound(0); i++)

    url = url.Replace(_chars[i, 0], _chars[i, 1]);

    return url;

    }

    public static string DecodeUrl(string url)
    {

    for (int i = 0; i < _chars.GetUpperBound(0); i++)

    url = url.Replace(_chars[i, 1], _chars[i, 0]);

    return url;

    }

  21. Kam says:

    just checked again and that code wont post anything good on your tweets , seems to add the literal chars instead of the escaped versions …. SOrry!

  22. Pingback: Oauth, Twitter, 401 Unauthorised

  23. The solution to your problems with longer Tweets not working is:
    string status = Uri.EscapeDataString(Message);

    (The initial status var wasn’t containing encoded version of the Tweet. This will fail the signature building.)

  24. Sunny Kumar says:

    Reblogged this on Welcome and commented:
    It really helped me! Thanks goes to garyshort.org

  25. Kerry Lindsay says:

    I have followed the code in this blog post (apart from putting the authorisation header parameters in the correct order which fixed the 401 error for me). My code now runs through and does not throw up any errors, but the tweet is not displaying in the twitter account. Any ideas?
    thanks, Kerry

  26. smp says:

    update.json worked first. But got 403 forbidden before and after adding this hwr.KeepAlive = false. I would like to get the home_timeline using oauth. I tried to modify webrequest.create and base string but did not work. How do I get rid of 403 error, use home_timeline?

  27. smp says:

    When I try hom_timeline-in console it retme 400 bad request but in webapplication it is 401 unauthorized
    HttpWebRequest hwr =
    (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(
    @”https://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/home_timeline.json?include_entities=true”);

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